Essays On Opera

Volume 3 in The Ashgate Library of Essays in Opera Studies, a collection of essays in English,* Roberta Montemorra Marvin, series editor (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010)

Introduction

The study of opera in the second half of the eighteenth century has flourished during the last several decades, and our knowledge of the operas written during that period and of their aesthetic, social and political contexts has vastly increased. Much of what we have learned in these and other areas of scholarship has been recorded in the form of articles published in scholarly journals and in collections of essays. This volume will explore opera and operatic life in the years 1750–1800 through several English-language essays, in a selection intended to represent the last few decades of scholarship in all its excitement and variety.

This introduction provides some context for the essays that follow. It briefly discusses some of the institutional developments and intellectual trends that have informed scholarship in eighteenth-century opera and mentions some of the criteria that have guided my choice of the essays reprinted here.

National Traditions, Academic Institutions

Although scholars in all the English-speaking countries have been actively involved inresearch in opera of the second half of the eighteenth century, some countries seem to have developed particular specializations and strengths, thanks in part to the presence of especially productive and influential scholars. In England, for example, Julian Rushton’s work on tragédie lyrique and David Charlton’s on opéra-comique have helped the study of French opera thrive. In the United States, in contrast, research on Italian opera, both comic and serious, has prospered under the leadership of scholars such as Daniel Heartz and James Webster. Americans who have specialized in French opera, such as Elizabeth C. Bartlet and Karin Pendle, and Britons who have specialized in Italian opera, such as Michael Robinson, have led productive careers, but mostly on their own.

Certain graduate programmes have produced particularly large numbers of successful students of eighteenth-century opera. Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, is remarkable in this respect. Although no member of its faculty claims eighteenth-century opera as his or her primary field of study, several Cornell students, including Caryl Clark, Paul Horsley, Mary Hunter, Pierpaolo Polzonetti, Ronald J. Rabin and Jessica Waldoff, have written dissertations in the field. Just as productive has been the University of California, Berkeley, where Heartz has directed the dissertations of several students who have gone on to make important contributions to the study of eighteenth-century opera, including Thomas Bauman, Bruce Alan Brown, Kathleen Hansell, Marita P. McClymonds and John A. Rice.

Cornell students have tended to devote their dissertations to the relatively familiar genre of opera buffa and to the works of Mozart (Waldoff, 1995; Rabin, 1996) and Haydn (Hunter, 1982; Clark, 1991). Horsley’s dissertation on Dittersdorf’s German operas (1988) and Polzonetti’s on opera buffa and the American Revolution (2003) are exceptional in directing readers’ attention away from Mozart and Haydn. Berkeley students, in contrast, have tended to look farther afield: to composers such as Gluck (Brown, 1986) or Jommelli (McClymonds, 1978), to operatic centres such as Milan (Hansell, 1979) or Florence (Rice, 1987), and to genres such as Singspiel (Bauman, 1977), opera seria (McClymonds, 1978; Hansell, 1979; Rice, 1987) and opéra-comique (Brown, 1986). The intellectual ferment generated in 1994 by a conference at Cornell on opera buffa in Mozart’s Vienna was partly a result of its having brought together the Berkeley and Cornell ‘schools’ in friendly collaboration (see Hunter and Webster, 1997).

Another important development over the last few decades has been the arrival of youngItalian scholars in American graduate schools. Having taken advantage of both Italy’s excellent system of elementary and secondary education and the professional training in which a few American graduate programmes still excel, scholars such as Polzonetti, Alessandra Campana, Stefano Castelvecchi and Sergio Durante have contributed a great deal to our understanding of eighteenth-century opera.

Aesthetics and Dramaturgy

Most opera lovers are familiar with only a few operas written during the second half of the eighteenth century. Even some of those who know and love the late operas of Mozart may not be thoroughly familiar with the aesthetic and dramaturgical systems that underlie these and other operas. Most if not all essays about opera in this period deal, at least implicitly, with problems of aesthetics and dramaturgy. But some confront those problems more openly than others, and this book opens with a sample of such essays.

In Chapter 1 Rushton elegantly and perceptively brings the abstractions of a Parisian pamphlet war of the 1770s into contact with the works by Niccolò Piccinni that were the subject of debate. Raymond Monelle, in Chapter 2, furthers our understanding of the function of recitative and the relationship between recitative and aria in opera seria. The happy ending so prevalent in eighteenth-century dramaturgy is one of the subjects explored by Bauman in Chapter 3, a stimulating study of German operatic treatments of the story of Romeo and Juliet. Chapter 4, Webster’s typically thought-provoking essay on the problem of musical unity in Mozart’s operas, calls attention to the difference between the way an opera is perceived when studied in a score and when heard and seen in performance.

Singers

One of the fields of research that has been cultivated with particular energy and originality (especially in the United States) is the study of singers and their role in operatic production.With the help of Claudio Sartori’s catalogue of Italian librettos published before 1800 (1990–94), a new and immensely valuable research tool that appeared in seven volumes, scholars have reconstructed, with more detail and accuracy than previously possible, the careers of many of the period’s greatest singers. From the music written for these singers historians have extracted vocal profiles that allow us to interpret the music they sang as the product of interaction between a composer’s imagination and a singer’s vocal abilities and artistic personality.

Here again Heartz has led the way, with his early essay on Anton Raaff, the tenor who created the title role in Idomeneo (Chapter 5). His student Patricia Lewy Gidwitz wrote an important dissertation (1991) and published some of her most valuable insights in two essays, one on Caterina Cavalieri and Aloysia Lange, reprinted here as Chapter 7, the other on Adriana Ferrarese del Bene (1996). Other historians have focused more attention on opera seria singers. Dennis Libby (1989) asserted the primacy of vocal improvisation in the production of serious opera in Naples and Venice. In Chapter 6 Dale Monson shows how the male soprano Ferdinando Tenducci contributed to the shaping of the music written for him. Paul Corneilson and Rice have followed the careers and analysed the vocal profiles of some of the women who created roles in Mozart’s Idomeneo (Corneilson, Chapter 8, this volume) and La clemenza di Tito (Rice, 1995). Bauman (1991) has shown how a single singer, Valentin Adamberger, brought a distinct vocal profile to his work in a wide variety of vocal genres, from Singspiel to Italian oratorio. Dorothea Link has directed much of her interest in singers who created roles in Mozart’s opere buffe into the production of editions of arias written for those singers by composers other than Mozart (beginning with Link, 2002 and Link, 2004; others are forthcoming). Among her essays on singers active in Vienna during the 1780s is a study of Anna Morichelli, who created roles in several operas by Vicente Martín y Soler (Link, 2010).

Arias and Ensembles

Another fruitful field of study has been the close analysis of arias both as musical form and as dramatic expression. Aria types such as the buffo aria, the two-tempo rondò and the cavatina are all more clearly understood now than they were thirty years ago, in terms not only of their musical and poetic structure but also of the way they contribute to characterization and the unfolding drama. Webster’s encyclopedic survey of the types and forms of arias in Mozart’s operas (1991) built on Hunter’s work on Haydn’s arias (1982, 1989) and John Platoff’s on Mozart and his compositional contemporaries in 1780s Vienna (1990). Heartz’s study of Mozart’s La clemenza di Tito as a product of a musical culture that Mozart shared with leading Italian composers of the 1780s and 1790s (1978–79) focused attention on the two-tempo rondò as an aria of particular importance to singers and audiences alike. The rondò was subsequently the object of a great deal of scholarly attention. Rice (1986) analysed an influential early example of the aria type, Giuseppe Sarti’s ‘Mia speranza io pur vorrei’. Platoff (1991b) examined a poem that Lorenzo Da Ponte intended for Mozart to set as a two-tempo rondò for Susanna in Le nozze di Figaro (‘Non tardar amato bene’) but that ended up being composed not by Mozart but by Vincenzo Righini. Don Neville (1994) surveyed the two-tempo rondò in Mozart’s late operas.

Equally productive has been the study of ensembles, from duets to finales. In Chapter 23 Scott Balthazar follows the development of the opera seria duet from the mid-eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century in one of several essays on ensembles in serious opera that also include Heartz (1980) on the quartet ‘Andrò ramingo e solo’ in Mozart’s Idomeneo and McClymonds (1996) on the Idomeneo quartet viewed within the tradition of quartets in opera seria. Platoff (1989, 1991a, 1997) has increased our understanding of the ensembles in Mozart’s comic operas in a rich series of essays. Elisabeth Cook (1992), a student of Charlton at the University of East Anglia, has shown that research on eighteenth-century operatic ensembles is by no means limited to Italian opera in her study of ensembles in opéra-comique.

Sensibility, Sentiment and the Pastoral

A cult of sensibility spread through Europe during the second third of the eighteenth century, partly in reaction to the Enlightenment’s emphasis on reason, partly in response to the Enlightenment’s confidence in the innate goodness of human nature. Like so many eighteenth-century fashions, the cult of sensibility owed a great deal to England. Richardson’s novels made sensibility – defined by Diderot’s Encyclopédie as ‘disposition tendre et delicate de l’âme, qui la rend facile à être émue, à être touchée’ (‘a tender, delicate disposition of the soul that makes it susceptible to being moved, to being touched’) – an emotional state that was cultivated by sophisticated people all over Europe. Several historians have investigated the effect of the cult of sensibility on the creation and perception of opera. Rice (1986) called attention to the way in which the cult of sensibility shaped the reception of a great singer’s performance in a serious opera in Milan, but another essay published the previous year, dealing with the role of sensibility in opera buffa, excited much more interest: Hunter’s essay (Chapter 9) on Richardson’s Pamela and how it and in particular the sensibility of his heroine influenced eighteenth-century opera initiated a remarkable series of studies during the following two decades, including Castelvecchi (Chapter 11) on Nina as sentimental heroine in operas by Dalayrac and Paisiello, Edmund Goehring (Chapter 13) on sensibility in Viennese opera buffa of the 1780s, Waldoff (1998) on Haydn’s La vera costanza and Castelvecchi (2000) on Mozart’s Figaro.

Closely related to eighteenth-century opera’s adoption of the cult of sensibility was its exploitation of pastoral themes. An idealized natural world in which people live in harmony with nature and with each other – the mythical Arcadia of pastoral poets –served as the setting of many eighteenth-century operas and provided important thematic elements to others. Bartlet (1984–85) called attention to the importance of the pastoral in an opera written to celebrate the marriage of Marie Antoinette to the dauphin of France, Grétry’s La rosière de Salency. Among Mozart’s operas, pastoral elements of two in particular – Le nozze di Figaro and Così fan tutte – have attracted the attention of scholars, including Wye Jamison Allanbrook (Chapter 10), Goehring (1995) and Link (Chapter 12). Bauman (1995), in a more widely ranging exploration of the pastoral in eighteenth-century music, starts, unexpectedly, with a famous painting by the seventeenth-century artist Poussin.

Orientalism and Exoticism

In yet another productive area of study, historians have analysed the depiction of non-Western cultures in opera, exploring themes of orientalism and exoticism in works such as Haydn’s Lo speziale, Gluck’s Iphigénie en Tauride, Mozart’s Die Entführung aus dem Serail and Salieri’s Axur re d’Ormus. Interest in the way non-European culture is depicted in these and other operas is part of a wider scholarly interest in musical exoticism that has produced a collection of essays on the exotic in Western music (Bellman, 1998). Included in that book is an essay by Hunter (1998) (devoted only partly to opera), which concerns a kind of musical exoticism–the attempt to convey some of the sonic qualities of Turkish janissary music–that was particularly characteristic of the second half of the eighteenth century. Other English-language analyses of exoticism in opera include Thomas Betzwieser (1994) on changes that Beaumarchais and Salieri made to their Tarare during the French Revolution, Margaret R. Butler (2006) on De Maio’s Motezuma in Turin and two essays reprinted here–Chapter 14 by Benjamin Perl, on Mozart’s Turkish style, and Chapter 15 by Pierpaolo Polzonetti, on operas set in the New World.

Genre Studies

The differences between the operatic genres that flourished in the eighteenth century – operabuffa, opera seria, Singspiel, opéra-comique, tragédie lyrique – and the relations between these genres have inspired many important essays. Bertil van Boer (1988) analysed the influence of English ballad opera on the development of Singspiel in Germany in the middle of the century; Alfred R. Neumann (1963) followed the subsequent evolution of the genre. Robinson (1978–81) and Rice (2000) discussed a subgenre of Italian comic opera, the Roman intermezzo, that had not received much attention from scholars. Although most of Robinson’s work has involved Italian opera, he has by no means limited his research to Italy; in an essay published in 1992 he showed how Italian comic opera contributed to the development of French opera. Stephen C. Willis’s study of Luigi Cherubini’s transition from opera seria to opéra-comique (1982) is yet another study of generic influence and transformation in Paris during the second half of the eighteenth century.

But perhaps the generic interaction that has proved most stimulating to writers on opera has been the interaction between opera seria and opera buffa, and especially opera buffa’s incorporation of elements of opera seria. To what extent does that incorporation involve parody? And what does the parody signify? Hunter (1986, 1991) has been particularly active in exploring relations between serious and comic in Italian opera. The interaction between serious and comic in Haydn’s operas has been the subject of studies by Brown (1987), on Orlando Paladino, and Clark (1993), on La fedeltà premiata.

Opera and Politics

As with any theatrical performance involving an audience, no matter how small or select, the performance of an opera is a political act, with the potential for communicating political messages of many kinds and in many directions. Rarely are such messages completely clear and unambiguous, but that has not kept scholars from trying to elucidate the political implications of eighteenth-century opera. One of the ways rulers manipulated opera’s ability to communicate political meaning was through censorship. This is the subject of Chapter 16 by Bartlet, which examines the controversy surrounding an opera by Méhul that during the French Revolution was suspected of encouraging Royalist sympathies. Betzwieser (1994) also looked at an opera through the lens of French Revolutionary politics. Bauman (1986) showed how the early repertory of the Teatro la Fenice reflected the political situation in late eighteenth-century Venice, and this essay strongly influenced a later discussion of Venetian opera in the same period by Martha Feldman (2007). Opera was no less powerful a conveyer of political meaning in the German-speaking part of Europe, as Estelle Joubert demonstrates in Chapter 17 on the political implications of Hiller’s Singspiele.

Manuscript Studies

Another important development in the study of eighteenth-century opera – largely independent of the Cornell and Berkeley ‘schools’, neither of which has encouraged this kind of research – has been the study of music manuscripts. Alan Tyson, in a stimulating series of essays written during the 1970s and 1980s, shed new light on Mozart’s autographs and the paper on which they are written. His catalogue of the watermarks in the paper that Mozart used constituted another monumental contribution to our knowledge of the autograph scores (Tyson, 1992). Dexter Edge’s doctoral dissertation (2001) on Mozart’s Viennese copyists did for manuscript copies (that is, the work of professional copyists) what Tyson had done for the autographs: it made available vast amounts of new information and important methodological insights whose influence will undoubtedly be felt for a long time – and not only by Mozart scholars. Corneilson and Eugene K. Wolf (1994) brought similar methodological rigour to their study of operatic sources from Mannheim, one of eighteenth-century Germany’s most important courts. David J. Buch (1997) has subjected the manuscripts associated with the Theater auf der Wieden (the theatre for which Mozart wrote Die Zauberflöte) to intensive investigation, while Daniel Melamed (2003–2004) has extended Tyson’s analytical techniques to Mozart’s Singspiel, Die Entführung aus dem Serail.

Staging, Scenery, Orchestras, Theatres

In an age in which opera houses have largely abdicated the staging of opera to directors who seem neither to know nor to care how librettists and composers intended their works to be staged, historians have had little practical reason to elucidate the principles and practices of eighteenth-century stage design. Yet many of them have done so, perhaps with the hope of offering historically-informed alternatives to the often trashy Regietheater that predominates in so many prestigious theatres today, in grotesque contrast to the faithfulness to the score with which singers and orchestras are expected to perform the music.

Thanks to the work of several scholars we know more than ever about the theatres in which eighteenth-century operas were performed. Heartz (1982) has elucidated the construction and remodelling of Vienna’s Burgtheater; Corneilson (1997) has done the same for a theatre that Charles Burney called ‘one of the largest and most splendid theatres in Europe’, the Mannheim Court Theatre. While Corneilson’s reconstruction took place in his scholarly imagination, Curtis Price et al. (1991) examined the actual design and construction of the King’s Theatre, Haymarket, in the period 1789–91.

Several essays have explored the size and composition of the orchestras and choruses that performed in these and other theatres: examples include Butler (Chapter 26) on the chorus at Parma that took part in the important series of French-inspired Italian serious operas during the 1760s, Charlton (1985) on the orchestra and chorus of one of Paris’s leading theatres in the second half of the eighteenth century, and Edge (1992) on the orchestras that accompanied Mozart’s Viennese operas.

How operas were staged in the eighteenth century has been the subject of numerous studies. Sven Hansell (1974), Roger Savage (1998) and Nicholas Solomon (1989) have contributed to our knowledge of the positions, movements and gestures of the singers on the eighteenth- century stage. Betzwieser (2000) has shown how music and action corresponded in French opera, with each enhancing the effect of the other. Clark (2003) has identified a set of eighteenth-century costume designs as possibly intended for a production of Salieri’s early opera, Armida. Such studies, valuable now, will be even more valuable when opera houses and audiences, having tired of the antics of Regietheater, discover that eighteenth-century operas can best be appreciated when presented in settings that respect the visual as well as the musical conventions within which they were conceived.

Archival Studies

Archival research has greatly enhanced our understanding of eighteenth-century opera’s institutional history, allowing scholars to shed new light on the role of rulers, courts and impresarios in the production of opera. Among several historians who have profitably worked in Italian archives are Butler (2002, for Turin; Chapter 26, this volume, for Parma), Robinson (1990, for Naples) and Anthony DelDonna (2002, also for Naples). Edge has made many important discoveries in the archives of Vienna, including those presented and analysed in Chapter 18, his study of the fees that Mozart and other composers received for composing operas for the court theatres in the 1780s and early 1790s. Historians of opera in England have been just as willing to get their hands dirty, producing a large number of essays based largely on hitherto unknown archival documents (see, for example, Gibson, 1990; Milhous and Hume,1997). Several historians have intensively studied the origins of particular operas, and these studies have generally depended, in part, on archival research. Brown (1983, 2000) explored the origins of important Viennese operas of the 1760s; Durante (1999) clarified our understanding of how one of Mozart’s last operas, La clemenza di Tito, came into being.

Mozart and his Viennese Contemporaries

It will be obvious to anyone who has read up to this point that Mozart’s operas have been a focus of attention for many – probably most – of the historians who have studied opera of the second half of the eighteenth century.

One way of illustrating the wealth of scholarship on Mozart’s operas published during the last quarter of a century is to mention some of the English-language essays about a single opera, Le nozze di Figaro. Some of these essays discuss the origins of Figaro (Tyson, 1981; Heartz, 1986b); some are concerned with its large-scale structure (Heartz, 1987; Waldoff and Webster, 1996); some focus our attention on sentiment and sensibility (Allanbrook, Chapter 10, this volume; Castelvecchi, 2000); some examine individual arias and ensembles (Heartz, 1991; Platoff, 1991a; Leeson, 2004; see also two pieces written in response to Leeson’s essay: Woodfield, 2006 and Rumph, 2006); some direct attention to particular characters, such as Susanna (Tishkoff, 1990), the Countess (Hunter, 1997) or Figaro (Rabin, 1997). One could easily draw up equally long lists, full of equally intriguing titles, of essays on Don Giovanni, Così fan tutte and Die Zauberflöte.

Mozart’s operas have also played an important role in studies that compare them with the works of his contemporaries, or that study those works in order to understand the context of Mozart’s operatic achievement. Most of the essays on Mozart’s singers mentioned earlier in this introduction involve the analysis of music written for those singers by composers other than Mozart. Link (Chapter 12) examines Martín y Soler’s L’arbore di Diana and proposes it as a possible model for Così fan tutte; in Chapter 19 and elsewhere Platoff has produced valuable studies of the musical techniques of opera buffa in Vienna during the 1780s (see also Platoff, 1989, 1990, 1991a, 1991b). Buch, in Chapter 21, shows how Die Zauberflöte took shape within and reflects the dramatic and musical values of Emanuel Schikaneder’s troupe at the Theater auf der Wieden (see also Buch, 1997). In Chapter 20 Brown and Rice discuss Salieri’s aborted attempt to set to music the libretto that later became known, in Mozart’s setting, as Così fan tutte.

Opera Seria

No operatic genre has enjoyed a more dramatic increase in the amount of scholarly attention it has received during the last thirty years than Italian serious opera, and this attention has produced not only valuable dissertations and books but also essays. As in so many other areas of research into eighteenth-century opera, Heartz (1970) set an example with a path-breaking publication that put opera seria at the forefront of musical life and stylistic change; he continued with a series of classic essays, including Chapter 5 in this volume, that followed the evolution of the genre from Hasse to Mozart and elucidated some of its most characteristic elements (Heartz, 1978–79, 1978–81, 1980, 1986a). Many of Heartz’s students have contributed to our knowledge of opera seria and related genres – for example, Bauman (1986) on the building and the early repertory of the Teatro la Fenice in late eighteenth-century Venice, Brown (2000) on Hasse’s Alcide al Bivio and Hansell (2000) on the operas that Mozart wrote for Milan in the early 1770s.

But easily the most prolific of Heartz’s students in the area of opera seria has been McClymonds, whose essays if reprinted together would constitute an outstanding history of the genre. Chapter 22 is her 1989 essay on new trends in Venetian opera seria at the end of the eighteenth century. Among the finest of those that have not already been cited are her essays on Jommelli’s late operas (McClymonds, 1980), on the increasing popularity of tragic endings in Venetian opera of the 1790s (McClymonds, 1990), on operas based on the story of Armida (McClymonds, 1993), comparing the musical styles of opera seria and opera buffa (McClymonds, 1997) and on the reform of opera seria in Italy (McClymonds, 2003).

The research on opera seria by Heartz and his students has inspired further work by many scholars on both sides of the Atlantic. But while members of the Berkeley ‘school’ have generally shown equal interest in the music of Mozart and his contemporaries, most others have focused on one or the other. Feldman’s research on serious opera in Italy has resulted not only in a magisterial book (2007) but also in several important essays, including that reprinted here as Chapter 25 (see also Feldman, 1995). Other essays devoted mostly or entirely to opera in Italy include Butler’s studies of repertory and production in Turin and Parma (in particular Chapter 26; see also Butler, 2002, 2006) and Balthazar’s study of the evolution of the opera seria duet (Chapter 23). Chapter 24 by Durante is among the essays that mainly concern Mozart’s opere serie (see also Rushton, 1991, 1998, 2003; Durante, 1999). (Rushton is unusual in moving freely between opera buffa, opera seria and tragédie lyrique, and in demonstrating the same level of expertise in writing about all three genres.) Corneilson, though not a student of Heartz, has followed the Berkeley historian in studying the opere serie of Mozart (see Chapter 8) and others, such as J.C. Bach (Corneilson, 1994), with equal success.

Essay Selection

It will be obvious that I have not been able to include in this book all the essays mentioned in this introduction. Both to maximize the number of items in this volume and because I believe that brevity is a quality to be valued in essays, I have limited my selection to essays of thirty pages or less. This has meant omitting many of the important essays that I have mentioned already, such as those by Buch (1997), Durante (1999), Feldman (1995), Waldoff (1998), Waldoff and Webster (1996) and Webster (1991). A particularly influential and widely admired essay that I have not included because of its length is that by Libby (1989) on opera in Naples and Venice. I have chosen essays that have not already been republished, either in anthologies or in collections of papers by a single author. This has kept out some of the best essays by the field’s busiest cultivators. Many of Heartz’s essays on Mozart’s opera have been collected in one volume (Heartz,1990); many others can be conveniently read together (Heartz, 2004). Most of Charlton’s numerous essays on opéra-comique have been reprinted (Charlton, 2000) and most of Tyson’s manuscript studies have been brought together (Tyson, 1987).

Finally, to maximize the variety of voices to be heard in this volume, each scholar is represented here by a single essay. This is, of course, grossly unfair to the several scholars who have written many essays that, if I were judging by quality and importance alone, should be included here. Limiting myself, for illustrative purposes, to just three prolific and original students of eighteenth-century opera, and citing only essays that I have not already mentioned in this introduction, it is with regret that I have omitted Bauman’s essay on the conditions in Vienna in the mid-1780s that led to exceptional achievements in opera buffa (1993), Hunter’s study of ‘Gothic’ settings in opera buffa of the 1770s (1993) and Platoff’s analysis of tonal planning in Mozart’s operas (1996). An anthology of essays by Bauman, Hunter and Platoff alone would make a fine, large book.

Works (mostly articles) cited in the Introduction, not including articles reprinted in this book

Bartlet, Elizabeth C. (1984–85), ‘Grétry, Marie Antoinette and La rosière de Salency’, Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, 111, pp. 92–120.

Bauman, Thomas (1977), ‘Music and Drama in Germany: The Repertory of a Traveling Company, 1767–1781’, PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley.

Bauman, Thomas (1981), ‘Benda, the Germans, and Simple Recitative’, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 34, pp. 119–31.

Bauman, Thomas (1986), ‘The Society of La Fenice and its First Impresarios’, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 39, pp. 332–54.

Bauman, Thomas (1991), ‘Mozart’s Belmonte’, Early Music, 19, pp. 557–63.

Bauman, Thomas (1993), ‘Salieri, Da Ponte and Mozart: The Renewal of Viennese Opera Buffa in the 1780s’, in Ingrid Fuchs (ed.), Internationaler Musikwissenschaftlicher Kongreß zum Mozartjahr 1991, Baden-Wien: Bericht, Tutzing: Schneider, pp. 65–70.

Bauman, Thomas (1995), ‘Moralizing at the Tomb: Poussin’s Arcadian Shepherds in Eighteenth-Century England and Germany’, in Thomas Bauman and Marita P. McClymonds (eds), Opera and the Enlightenment, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 23–42.

Bellman, Jonathan (ed.) (1998), The Exotic in Western Music, Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Betzwieser, Thomas (1994), ‘Exoticism and Politics: Beaumarchais’ and Salieri’s Le couronnement de Tarare, 1790’, Cambridge Opera Journal, 6, pp. 91–112.

Betzwieser, Thomas (2000), ‘Musical Setting and Scenic Movement: Chorus and Choeur dancé in Eighteenth-Century Parisian Opera’, Cambridge Opera Journal, 12, pp. 1–28.

Boer, Bertil van (1988), ‘Coffey’s The Devil to Pay, the Comic War, and the Emergence of the German Singspiel’, Journal of Musicological Research, 8, pp. 119–39.

Brown, Bruce Alan (1983), ‘Gluck’s La Rencontre imprevue and its Revisions’, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 36, pp. 498–515.

Brown, Bruce Alan (1986), ‘Christoph Willibald Gluck and Opéra comique in Vienna, 1754–1764’, PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley.

Brown, Bruce Alan (1987), ‘Le pazzie d’Orlando, Orlando Paladino, and the Uses of Parody’, Italica, 64, pp. 583–605.

Brown, Bruce Alan (2000), ‘“Mon opéra italien”: Giacomo Durazzo and the Genesis of Alcide al Bivio’, in Andrea Sommer-Mathis and Elisabeth Theresia Hilscher (eds), Pietro Metastasio: Uomo universale (1698–1782), Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, pp. 115–42.

Buch, David J. (1997), ‘Mozart and the Theater auf der Wieden: New Attributions and Perspectives’, Cambridge Opera Journal, 9, pp. 195–232.

Butler, Margaret (2002), ‘Administration and Innovation at Turin’s Teatro Regio: Producing Sofonisba (1764) and Oreste (1766)’, Cambridge Opera Journal, 14, pp. 243–62.

Butler, Margaret (2006), ‘Exoticism in Eighteenth-Century Turinese Opera: Motezuma in context’, in Mara E. Parker (ed.), Music in Eighteenth-Century Cities, Courts, Churches, Ann Arbor, MI: Steglein, pp. 105–

Castelvecchi, Stefano (2000), ‘Sentimental and Anti-Sentimental in Le nozze di Figaro’, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 53, pp. 1–24.

Charlton, David (1985), ‘Orchestra and Chorus at the Comédie Italienne, 1755–99’, in Malcolm Brown and Roland Wiley (eds), Slavonic and Western Music: Essays for Gerald Abraham, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 87–108.

Charlton, David (2000), French Opera, 1730–1830: Meaning and Media, Aldershot: Ashgate.

Clark, Caryl (1991), ‘The Opera Buffa Finales of Joseph Haydn’, PhD diss., Cornell University.

Clark, Caryl (1993), ‘Intertextual Play and Haydn’s La fedeltà premiata’, Current Musicology, 51, pp.59–81.

Clark, Caryl (2003), ‘Fabricating Magic: Costuming Salieri’s Armida’, Early Music, 31, pp. 451–62.

Cook, Elisabeth (1992), ‘Developments in Vocal Ensemble Compositon in Opéra-comique’, in PhilippeVendrix (ed.), Grétry et l’Europe de l’opéra-comique, Liège: Pierre Mardaga, pp. 113–92.

Corneilson, Paul (1994), ‘The Case of J.C. Bach’s Lucio Silla’, Journal of Musicology, 12, pp. 206–18.

Corneilson, Paul (1997), ‘Reconstructing the Mannheim Court Theater’, Early Music, 35, pp. 63–68, 70–76, 79–81.

Corneilson, Paul and Wolf, Eugene K. (1994), ‘Newly Identified Manuscripts of Operas and Related Works from Mannheim’, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 47, pp. 244–74.

DelDonna, Anthony (2002), ‘Behind the Scenes: The Musical Life and Organizational Structure of the San Carlo Opera Orchestra in Late Eighteenth-Century Naples’, in Paologiovanni Maione (ed.), Le fonti d’archivio per la storia della musica a Napoli dal XVI al XVIII secolo, Naples: EditorialeScientifica, pp. 427–48.

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`This is indeed a book from which most opera lovers can glean knowledge and pleasure.'
Day by Day

`this splendid book will at once convince the casual music-lover that there are other vital concerns for Winton Dean than just the oddly assorted two composers for whom he has performed the greatest and most persistent service, Handel and Bizet. ... so well does Winton Dean write, such
liveliness and wit, depth of scholarship and enthusiasm, wide range of reference and insight, that this collection will have and appeal far beyond the normal run of musically interested readers. ... this is a consistently rewarding book, wise, urbane, learned-and thoroughly entertaining.'
Peter Branscombe, German History vol.X no. III 92

`superb essay on Verdi's Otello ... Dean's collection, which covers nearly 40 years, is musicology at its finest.' Anthony Burgess, Observer

`his skills are unmatched, both as a detective and as a user of words to pin down that most elusive subject, musical quality.' John Roselli, Times Literary Supplement

`It is the most important and readable volume of music criticism and analysis to appear in Britain since Martin Cooper's Judgments of Value and David Cairns's Responses'
Michael Kennedy, Sunday Telegraph

`Dean's collection, which covers nearly 40 years, is musicology at its finest. Dean inherits the tradition of stylistic excellence which Dent initiated ... we are grateful for his specialisations.' Anthony Burgess, Observer

`Formidable in criticism as in thoroughness of research and presentation, Winton Dean has a very special place among writers on music in our time. He is a great tightener of standards.'
Musical Times

`His scholarship, wide and deep, is conveyed with precision in clear, trenchant English refreshingly free from cloudiness or rhetoric. Great learning is lightly worn, and made excellently readable.'
Financial Times

`For those who may know only his majestic Handel's Dramatic Oratorios and Masques (1959) and Handel's Operas 1704-1726 (1987; written jointly with J. Merrill Knapp), this collection of miscellaneous essays on opera will broaden their perspective of a master critic's achievements as both an
elegant, at times witty, essayist and an authority with prodigious knowledge about a diverse array of operatic topics.'
George J. Buelow, Music and Letters, Vol. 73, No. 1, Feb '92

`this splendid book will at once convince the casual music-lover that there are other vital concerns for Winton Dean than just the oddly assorted two composers for whom he has performed the greatest and most persistent service, Handel and Bizet ... so well does Winton Dean write, with such
liveliness and wit, depth of scholarship and enthusiasm, wide range of reference and insight, that this collection will have an appeal far beyond the normal run of musically interested readers ... this is a consistently rewarding book, wise, urbane, learned - and thoroughly entertaining'
Peter Branscombe, University of St Andrews, German History, Vol. X, No. III, '92 --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

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