For the 1991 film, see Shuttlecock (film). For the 1981 novel on which it is based, see Shuttlecock (novel).
A shuttlecock (also called a bird or birdie) is a high-drag projectile used in the sport of badminton. It has an open conical shape formed by feathers (or a synthetic alternative) embedded into a rounded cork (or rubber) base. The shuttlecock's shape makes it extremely aerodynamically stable. Regardless of initial orientation, it will turn to fly cork first, and remain in the cork-first orientation.
The name 'shuttlecock' originates in Victorian times, when Badminton first became popular. It is frequently shortened to shuttle. The "shuttle" part of the name was probably derived from its back-and-forth motion during the game, resembling the shuttle of a loom, while the "cock" part of the name was probably derived from the resemblance of the feathers to those on a Rooster.
A shuttlecock weighs around 4.75 to 5.50 g (0.168 to 0.194 oz). It has 16 feathers with each feather 70 mm (2.8 in) in length. The diameter of the cork is 25 to 28 mm (0.98 to 1.10 in) and the diameter of the circle that the feathers make is around 54 mm (2.1 in).
Construction and materials
A shuttlecock is formed from 16 or so overlapping feathers, usually goose or duck, embedded into a rounded cork base. The cork is covered with thin leather. To ensure satisfactory flight properties, it is considered preferable to use feathers from right or left wings only in each shuttlecock, and not mix feathers from different wings, as the feathers from different wings are shaped differently.
The feathers are brittle; shuttlecocks break easily and often need to be replaced several times during a game. For this reason, synthetic shuttlecocks have been developed that replace the feathers with a plastic skirt. Players often refer to synthetic shuttlecocks as plastics and feathered shuttlecocks as feathers.
Feather shuttles need to be properly humidified for at least 4 hours prior to play in order to fly the correct distance at the proper speed and to last longer. Properly humidified feathers flex during play, enhancing the shuttle's speed change and durability. Dry feathers are brittle and break easily, causing the shuttle to wobble. Saturated feathers are 'mushy', making the feather cone narrow too much when strongly hit, which causes the shuttle to fly overly far and fast. Humidification boxes are often used, but a simple moist sponge inserted in the feather end of the closed shuttle tube will work nicely. Water should never touch the cork of the shuttle. Shuttles are tested prior to play to make sure they fly true and at the proper speed, and cover the proper distance. Different weights of shuttles are used to compensate for local atmospheric conditions. Both humidity and height above sea level affect shuttle flight. A proper shuttle will generally travel from the back line of the court to just short of the long doubles service line on the opposite side of the net, with a full underhand hit from an average player.
The cost of good quality feathers is similar to that of good quality plastics, but plastics are far more durable, typically lasting many matches without any impairment to their flight. Shuttles are easily damaged and should be replaced every three or four games, and sooner if they are damaged and do not fly straight. This interferes with the game, as the impairment on the flight of the shuttle may misdirect the direction of the shuttlecock.
Most experienced and skillful players greatly prefer feathers, and serious tournaments or leagues are always played using feather shuttlecocks of the highest quality. Experienced players generally prefer the "feel" of feathered shuttlecocks and assert that they are able to control the flight of feathers better than that of plastics. In Asia, where feather shuttlecocks are more affordable than in Europe and North America, plastic shuttlecocks are hardly used at all.
The playing characteristics of plastics and feathers are substantially different. Plastics fly more slowly on initial impact, but slow down less towards the end of their flight. While feathers tend to drop straight down on a clear shot, plastics never quite return to a straight drop, falling more on a diagonal. Feather shuttles may come off the strings at speeds in excess of 320 km/h (200 mph) but slow down faster as they drop. For this reason, the feather shuttle makes the game seem faster, but also allows more time to play strokes. Because feather shuttles fly more quickly off the racquet face they also tend to cause less shoulder impact and injury
|Look up shuttlecock in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Jianzi: a traditional Asian game in which players aim to keep a heavily weighted shuttlecock (Jian) from touching the ground
- Battledore and shuttlecock: an ancient game similar to that of modern badminton.
5. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/shuttlecock - shuttlecock: badminton equipment consisting of a ball of cork or rubber with a crown of feathers.
Who is not familiar with this one sport? Meanwhile, badminton is a sport that uses a racket that can be played by individuals or teams which hit a ball called a shuttlecock and past nets. In this sport, a lot of factors that can be explored which proved to be beneficial for health constantly and regularly. If it’s not, then it might be fatal. Therefore, here is the advantages of doing this exercise regularly.
1. Aspects of Muscles
In this sport, muscles have an important role, especially is the striated muscle where this muscle is having fibers that can be loosened up and tightened to the maximum. Thus, the muscles involved in this case are a group of upper limbs or in Latin language is superior extremity (Deltoid, Biceps, and triceps) and the group of the lower limbs or in Latin language is inferior extremity (Quadriceps, gastrocnemius and soleus.)
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2. Improve Speed and Agility
The advantages of this sport in the muscles is the need of speed and agility in order to chase the ball and reverse situation, then the upper leg and lower leg muscles work optimally. This is very helpful if we look in terms of health. Further, movement of muscles, which according to Paul Uram maximal muscle movement and conducted regularly and on – constantly will make the maximum resistance to pressure.
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3. Good Workout
It seems like decidedly different with other sports such as run, gymnastics, and football. In sport, it requires maximum speed then automatically makes the lower muscle extremity move to maximum length, but not with the upper leg and inefficient in full set if didn’t assisted with other gym equipment. The stiff muscles will affect directly to make lactic acid collected in body works, the effect of anaerobic respiration muscle. The concentrated at one point makes a muscle will be more injury.
4. Aspects of Joints
Joints is the important part to note by a person. Thus, the joint itself consists of three classifications one of them is synovial joints. Why we must say synovial? Synovial is the fluid use to lubricant the joint itself and only these types that have this lubricant so that joints are able to move freely and therefore this type of joint called synovial joints.
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In addition, synovial have more function. Thus, this fluid also serves as a cushion against the pressure which one can cause friction bone by bone. If this fluid is not produced, then the pressure will directly damage to bone and cause serious injuries such as bone fractures. Synovial fluid itself will be constantly reduced because of massif movement that we often do every day.
6. Improve Metabolism
Badminton is very interesting when we do it regularly, in a regular position. Thus, the synovium that acts as producers in the synovial fluid will regularly produce new synovial fluid when we are doing sports along with the increased metabolic processes.
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7. Osteoarthritis Treatment
It also makes this sport gain ratio to lower the risk of osteoarthritis disease (the condition of liquid synovial joints is reduced by used often lead to friction between the bones occurs and will causes an inflammatory process between the bone) when compared with the sport of weightlifting.
8. Friction Prevention
When we choose badminton to be our exercise, there are a moment when smash will initiate directly. Thus, when we are already get down and hit the ground, bones between joints will experience friction. Indeed, synovial fluid will used to reduce the effects of friction.
9. Aspects of Blood Vessels
Above, it mentions the impact from badminton to the blood vessels, that causes the blood vessel wall will be thickened and more elastic. This is helpful in blood circulation in body where blood circulation will be increased. Why blood flows increase in all of body parts is very good? It is very good because the bloodstream carries a lot of things, starting from the residue from metabolism, fat distribution, blood sugar, cells – blood cells, etc.
10. Weight Loss
Playing badminton with the important rules are impact to agility and nimbleness. This sport easily burns fat plus promote blood flows faster than before the burning process. Thus, the process burns energy faster. Besides, fat also be able to take vitamins supply from outside, it will be processed immediately and absorbed by cells quickly. Further, vitamin B12 works in controlling nerve impulses be better, and vitamin B6 for the production of cells – blood cells.
11. Immune System Booster
In a study, stating that an athlete will experience faster regeneration of tissue injury. Then, why that thing can happen? This can happen because of the impact of blood flows quickly, so that the immune system be more responsive in against the entry of bacteria. bBesides the energy to fixed, like protein in the form of amino acids works quicker to the goal and processed immediately to make new cells to replace cells that are already dead.
12. Avoid Obesity
Another advantage we can avoid is the dangers of obesity. Blood sugar in the body will also be processed quicker due to rapid pace of blood vessels. There are some vessels that are stored in the muscles called glucagon partly uses into energy for physical activity.
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13. Aspects of Hormone
Hormones are very influential in terms of exercise and same as important as muscle. The increased hormones should be regularly conducted the effect if when we do irregular will make generated hormones will be disturbed. This is the situation when stress takes place. Thus, playing Badminton can help to relax.
14. Arrhythmia Treatment
For example of adrenaline resulted in making the flows in heart faster so the heart beats become like racing on the stress hormones adrenaline uncontrolled issued thus spurring the flow continuous, in Latin is called tachycardia. In the case of prolonged will lead to more serious problems, namely arrhythmia (a condition where the flow of the heart was not controlled perfectly).
15. Promote Hormone Adrenaline
Especially, this sport is influential from hormone adrenaline, the hormone produced by the adrenal glands. This hormone controls a lot of nerve impulses. Thus, it makes the tension in the muscles to enable stimulation of this muscle. As a result, the condition impacts to brain that makes you focus on seeing the movement of an opponent.
16. Maintain Overall Health
The hormone adrenaline in badminton is very often excluded because the focal point of the sport is very fast and divided into two things. Thus, the first thing is for movement of the ball and the other is to see the movement of an opponent. By playing badminton frequently, adrenal hormones will often be encouraged which will cause nerve impulses to the tension in the muscles more often. Especially, on impulse on the heart muscle. The more frequent use, the bigger and give effect to pump blood and oxygen throughout the body will increase.
17. Improve Respiratory
Adrenal hormones also affect the respiratory system, but in the respiratory system adrenal hormones are not directly affected. This hormone affects the increase of body metabolism rate. The increase in the rate of metabolism requires more oxygen to automatic respiratory center. Thus, the medulla oblongata will make lungs work more quickly. Therefore, the breath during exercise is faster than usual. With the state in such a way, playing badminton regularly will cause a lung capacity be greater than normal people condition. This thing are the difference between normal people and athletes.
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18. Aspects of Metabolism
Metabolism is the most important thing for the body. As a result of metabolism is energy which function is to moving any part of body either in terms of the brain, muscles, etc. Metabolism needs oxygen to perform, exception for anaerobic process. By playing badminton, we can help improve our metabolism good. So, it’s so beneficial.
19. Promote Anaerobic System
What is meant by anaerobic? The anaerobic process is a process where energy creates without oxygen, Why can occur in such a way? Anaerobic processes transform glucose into energy without oxygen by anaerobic glycolysis, but residue metabolic from this process is lactic acid.
20. Muscle Pain Treatment
Meanwhile, lactic acid is very influential in the process of muscle pain. When the muscles are rarely practiced and focused only on one part will be easily localized muscle pain and very difficult to remove it. This is what makes badminton to be an attractive option sport. In this sport, muscle from the upper and lower limbs are forced to move into maximum in conquering opponents. The maximum strain occurs regularly leads through blood vessels of the muscle fibers easier to contract. Thus, regulates the lactic acid that has been circulating as a result of the anaerobic process and throw with sweat.
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21. Promote Lung Health
In addition, metabolic residue such as CO2 and uric acid will be more easily removed from the body due to factors that have been described above. Badminton is an exercise that requires speed and agility to cause lung capacity greater. Thus, it’s automatically makes the exchange between O2 and CO2. Then, for uric acid, will be easily excretion because heart muscle becomes larger and muscle endothelium of blood vessels also have thickening.
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22. Toxic Cleanse
Metabolic residue will be faster out due to pores in the skin will be enlarged by badminton, to be sweat where sweat contains compounds the residue from body such as lactic acid, urea, and various electrolytes. High urea in the blood can be fatal in the body because these substances are toxic to our bodies.
Mental Health Treatments by Playing Badminton
23. Make You Fresh
Indeed, playing badminton will make you feel fresh. Indeed, you have your body move and it’s automatically get you feeling fresher than you ever been. As a result, just like all sport make your body fresh and fit. So, now you may grab your racket and play badminton outside.
24. Make You Smarter
Thus, playing badminton needs strategy. Whether the strategy to serve the shuttlecock, how to smash, how to jump, and even how to win. Indeed, playing sports needs a working brain. So, people who plays smart automatically smart. Thus, sport is always both for brain and body.
25. Socialize Tools
Meanwhile, you can never play badminton alone. Unless, you need one rival to play with. By this, you are automatically making friends and get socializing with them. Later on, maybe you have a badminton club, a tournament, or just playing around.
There is many things benefits of badminton when we make in regular, but keep unfortunate if the exercise is in irregular even be harmful for body such as the muscles and joints, the muscle will perform unwanted contractions that cause injury to surrounding tissue, then friction joints due to perform several styles in badminton which would lead to osteoarthritis. Stay health and keep strong.